In 1018, both England and Scotland were in the process of evolving into the nations we recognise today. Formal national borders did not exist, rather there were spheres of influence with allegiance owed to local earls or kings.
The battle of Carham was a defining moment in the process of fixing a border between the two nations, a border that has lasted almost unchanged for one thousand years.
The Battle of Carham of 1018 is an enigma. There is a scarcity of primary sources for these times, and of what was written, much is confused or contradictory, and there is hardly one undisputed fact about the battle itself. There is disagreement about the date, the location, and the consequences of the battle.
This talk will attempt to provide some answers, but will certainly pose more questions…